Tag Archives: evaluation


The major distinguishing characteristic of evaluation, unlike monitoring, is that it is only conducted periodically at particular stages of the project. As such, there are five main types of evaluation. The different evaluation types vary mainly depending on the stage of the project.  While classification could be based on different criteria such as the methodology adopted, here we look at the classification based on the time. These types of evaluation are formative evaluation, mid-term evaluation, summative evaluation, ex-post evaluation and meta- evaluation. Continue reading


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In M&E planning, one of the things that managers have to work out are a set of indicators that will be used to measure outputs against program goals. Understandably, questions often arise regarding what indicators are, their importance and what to consider when choosing them. Here, we will take a look at examples of indicators, their types, their importance and eventually, how to select appropriate indicators.

What is an indicator?

An indicator is a variable that is normally used as a benchmark for measuring program or project outputs. It is “that thing” that shows that an undertaking has had the desired impact. It is on the basis of indicators that evidence can be built on the impact of any undertaking. Most often, indicators are quantitative in nature, however, in some few cases, they are qualitative. Continue reading


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There has been debate in various quarters of the Research, Monitoring and Evaluation field over the importance of control groups particularly when planning or conducting evaluation. For many project managers, the process of planning both mid-term and end-term evaluations remains a challenge. The big question for them always is whether to use a control group and subsequently, how to choose a suitable one. Let’s take a look at what a control group is, the need for one, and how to select an appropriate group.

What is a control group and why is it important?

When rolling out an intervention targeted at any particular group, there are set objectives that need to be accomplished. These are usually the expected outcomes of the project. A control group is usually a group that is homogenous to the targeted group, but which does not benefit from the intervention. A control group serves to establish Continue reading


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